TAMIL NADU AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY SUGARCANE RESEARCH STATION- MELALATHUR
The Sugarcane Research Station, Melalathur was started in February 1935 under the auspices of the scheme of Sugarcane Research sanctioned by the Imperial Council of Agriculture Research. This station was transferred to Tamil Nadu Agricultural University (TNAU) from the Government of Tamil Nadu from 1.4.1981 onwards.
Melalathur (Gudiyatham) is located in North Eastern Zone of Tamil Nadu at 12.5 North latitude and 79.. E longitude at an altitude of 237 m above MSL. The station is situated in Beemapuram hamlet of Melalathur Village at 3 KM from Gudiyatham Town in Vellore District.
Total Gross Area : 18.2 Hect.
Net Cultivable area : 15.2 Hect
Soil Type : Sandy loam
Average Annual Rainfall : 954 mm
Minimum Temperature range : 19.2. C - 27.7.C
Miaximum Temperature range : 29.2.C - 44.2.C
III. OBJECTIVE OF THE RESEARCH STATION:
The main objectives of the station are:
1. Evolving clones suitable for jaggery production.
2. Evolving high yield and high quality clones suitable for early, mid and late season crushing.
3. Evolving high yielding and good quality clones with tolerance to come up well in the tannery effluent affected soils.
4. Evolving drought tolerant clones.
5. Evolving shade tolerant clones suitable for growing as intercrop in coconut gardens.
6. Identifying suitable management practices for obtaining maximum sugarcane and sugar yield per unit time.
7. Screening varieties resistance to various pests and diseases.
RESEARCH ACHIEVEMENTS CROP IMPROVEMENT:
Based on the breeding objectives of Sugarcane Research Station, Melalathur, hybridisation work is being taken up at Sugarcane Breeding Institute, Coimbatore. The resultant fluff (Seeds) is then evaluated at Sugarcane Research Station, Melalathur. Every year the promising sugarcane clones are promoted and finally it takes 8 years before an outstanding clone is released as a variety.
From Sugarcane Research Station, Melalathur the following three varieties were released.
* Year of Release : 1993
* Parentage : Coc.772 x Co.419
* Season : Mid-late (March-April)
* Cane Yield : 132 t/ha
* Commercial cane sugar percent : 13.2 Percent
* Special characters : It is specially suitable for Tannery effluent affected soils.
It is also suitable for saline soils
Moderately tolerant to drought
* Year of Release : 1994
* Parentage : Coc.740 x Co.775
* Season : Early (December-January)
* Cane Yield : 133.6 t/ha
* Commercial cane sugar percent : 13.5 Percent
* Jaggery Recovery : 10.9 Percent
* Special characters : Suitable for Jaggery making.
High Sugar recovery
* Year of Release : 1995
* Parentage : Coc.771 x Co.775
* Season : Early (December - January)
* Cane Yield : Normal soil Tannery effluent affected soils
132.5 t/ha 108.2 t/ha
* Commercial cane sugar percent : 12.4 Percent
B. CROP MANAGEMENT:
1) Intercropping Greengram
Raising greengram as intercrop in sugarcane was found to be remunerative with increased profit as compared to sugarcane alone (Table.1)
Table.1: Economics of Intercropping (1972-73)
2. Effect of Trash Mulching in Sugarcane Fields
Trash mulching on ridges before life irrigation was found to be most effective in controlling weeds in sugarcane fields which resulted into increased cane and sugar yield (Table.2)
Table.2: Effect of Trash Mulching (1961 -64)
3. Nitrogen as Foliar Spraying of Urea:
Application of N through foliar spraying was found to be effective with a saving in N dose to sugarcane. Application of 112.5 Kgs N through soil as first dose of N on 45th day and foliar spraying with 57.5 Kgs N/ha as 2.5% urea solution in two splits on 90th and 110th day by high volume sprayer recorded more or less equal cane yield as that of 225 Kgs N/ha applied through soil (1964 - 67).
4.Tannery Effluent Polluted Soils:
In the report "Studies on the possibility of increasing Population, yield and quality of sugarcane in the tannery effluent polluted soils", mulching coir pith along furrows and ridges was found to be most effective in increasing cane population, cane yield and sugar yield.
The above treatment recorded 82.5 t cane yield and 9.2 t sugar yield per hectare whereas the conventional method without mulching recorded 71.3 t cane and 6.9 t sugar yield only.
C. CROP PROTECTION
A. PLANT PATHOLOGY
Sugarcane Sett Rot Control
Sugarcane Sett Rot caused by ceratocystis paradoxa (Morean) was effectively controlled by soaking the setts for 15 minutes with Carbendazim 0.05% + Teepol 0.1%. The above treatment also recorded the maximum germination of 70.3% and the highest cane yield of 71.3 t/ha with least sett rot incidence of 0.8% whereas the untreated control recorded 51.5% germination, 48.1 tonnes cane yield and 15.5% sett rot incidence (Table.1)
Table.1: Sugarcane sett rot control:
2. Epidemiology of Sugarcane diseases in Tannery effluent and non-effluent affected fields.
In general the sugarcane varieties grown in tannery effluent affected fields recorded the higher incidence sett rot grassy shoot disease, smut, leaf blight, leaf spot and twisted top resulting in lower yield than in non-tannery effluent affected fields.
More than 70 Sugarcane clones were tested for resistance to smut. Among then G.8334, C.8208, C.84087, G.84126 and G.8626 were resistant to smut.
1. Application of NSKE - 5% 500 1/ha on 35th and 55th days was effective against early shoot borer of sugarcane.
2. Shoot borer activities were more during March - May due to high temperature with low Relative humidity.
3. Application of Phosphomiddan - 0.05% or dimethoate - 0.05% during 7th and 8th month was effective against scales and mealy bugs.
4. More than seventy sugarcane clones were screened for their resistance against shoot borer and inter node borer.
Contents owned, maintained & updated by
The District Administration, Vellore District, Government of Tamil Nadu
Designed, developed & hosted by
National Informatics Centre, Vellore
Best viewed in Firefox/Chrome/IE with 1024x768 Resolution